A psychologist can effectively overcome all the difficulties of observation by constructive imagination and cautious and circumspect observation. Consciousness is described as the ultimate mystery in ancient Indian texts, and its study is lauded as the highest science. The modern Behaviourists reject the notions of mind and consciousness, and regard psychology as the science of behaviour or response of an organism to the stimulus. . So the experimenter should be very cautious and circumspect in observing the behaviour of the ‘subject’, and the ‘subject’ should have great mental alertness in introspecting his mental processes as they occur normally in his mind. In psychology: Early history James’s The Principles of Psychology (1890) defined psychology as the science of mental life and provided insightful discussions of topics and challenges that anticipated much of the field’s research Secondly, since mental processes are fleeting and evanescent by their nature, they elude grasp of internal perception. His behaviour may not give a genuine indication of his mental processes. But psychology is a science of mind, not of any individual mind. Likewise, we may trace the development of feeling or emotion, or volition, or imagination, or thought through different stages. Formerly, psychology was a part of metaphysics, and dealt with the nature, origin, and destiny of the soul. We begin with a few quotes from the current issue of Science Magazine and some historic quotes from Richard Feynman that illustrate his Noble Prize-winning insights about the meaning and significance of the quantum world … In his view, psychology as a science studies the response pattern of an individual in reaction to the stimuli coming from the environment. It also makes use of experiments with the help of instruments. There cannot be interpretation of others’ behaviour without prior introspection of our own similar mental processes. Innate potentialities are enriched specially through interaction with the social environment. Psychology is a positive science. These are biological sciences. Psychology is a natural science, since it deals with mental processes as they actually happen in the mind. The field of psychology started in the mid-1800s by defining itself as the science of consciousness. Valid conclusions may be drawn and predictions of future behaviour patterns of individuals can be made on the basis of the analysis and interpretation of statistical data. Chemistry deals with chemical combinations of elements. See more. Mental processes are sometimes produced by external stimuli. In comparative method we compare the nervous systems and the different degrees of intelligence among different species of animals, and find that the size and weight of the brain in relation to the body are intimately connected with intelligence. They are conducted by the optic nerves to the brain. Psychology is commonly defined as the science of consciousness. After reading this article you will learn about the :- 1. Its existence has been assumed by scientists. If there were no subject and object, there would be no experience. The former is external perception, while the latter is internal perception. It is the science of experience and behaviour, which tells us how the mind works and behaves. Two psychologists can never observe the same mental process. Psychology Definition of CONSCIOUSNESS: noun. Looks, gesture, language, etc., are the outward expressions of mental processes. The psycho-analytic methods include the Free Association, Dream analysis, and World Association or Controlled Association. But psychology deals with the mental processes of all minds, human and animal, normal and abnormal. My mental processes are open to my inner perception or introspection. So, unless we observe the minds of others, we cannot ascertain the general truths about minds. Physical sciences study the nature of physical systems. At the other extreme, […] This theory was challenged in the 20th century. . This definition was also discarded. It is not due to mere moral depravity. Freud in his psycho analytical theory described that mind consists of 3 states-preconscious, unconscious and conscious. In experiment we eliminate irrelevant circumstances and isolate relevant ones. They reduce psychology to a biological science. It seeks to discover the laws of mind. Light waves produce sensations of colours. He later opened the world’s first psychology lab in 1879 at the University of Leipzig. K. Koffka holds that even though the concept of ‘consciousness’ cannot be completely discarded from psychological vocabulary the main aim of psychology is the study of behaviour. Making Psychology A Science: The Path Through Physiology The results of the alliance was to be a new science of physiological psychology, whose tasks were: 1. But they can observe the similar emotions of fear in their own minds and compare their experiences with one another. Introspection requires that the same-mind be the observer and the observed. If many expert psychologists investigate their own similar fleeting mental processes, they may record their experiences and compare notes with one another. These are the objective products of collective behaviour. The French philosopher Rene Descartes introduced the concept of mind-body dualism or the idea that while the mind and body are separate, they do interact. Material objects are clear and distinct. Consciousness is defined as our subjective awareness of ourselves and our environment (Koch, 2004). The weight of man’s brain is 1/50 of his body weight. Thoughts, feelings, emotions or desires change from moment to moment. A science starts with certain assumptions about its subject-matter. (6) The peculiar traits and the objective products of collective behaviour. He records his observation immediately and avoids memory error. We can attend to the mental process and the object at the same time. These early insights into the relationship of physics and psychology were just before the beginning of quantum science by Max Planck and Albert Einstein (~ 1900). The growth and development of mental processes are traced through different stages to their origin. Secondly, bias and prejudice vitiate our observation of other minds, and affect our interpretation of others’ behaviour. The statistical method is indispensable in standardizing intelligence, ability, personality, and other psychological tests. Psychology also aims at a self-consistent body of knowledge relating to mental processes. We can easily retrospect what we failed to introspect. The behaviour of an individual is not like that of a machine which is pre-set to react to incoming stimuli. In experimental sciences, observation is supplemented by experiment. Only he will have to analyse his complex experience into its constituent aspects and re-compound them in such a way as to explain the behaviour of others correctly. Psychology does not necessarily refer to the brain or nervous system and can be framed purely in terms of phenomenological or information processing theories of mind. Or we can take transient side-glimpses of the mental process, call them together, and gather a satisfactory account of it. A science demands self-consistency within its own sphere; its facts and laws must be consistent with one another. First, psychology is a positive science, and should be mentioned definitely. Identify by number the question you are answering. Thirdly, psychology deals also with behaviour, physiological processes, and external stimuli which are related to consciousness. Thus psychology deals with the following: (3) Their concomitant physiological processes; (5) Animal behaviour, human mind, normal behaviour, and abnormal behaviour; and. Thirdly, though two scientists can observe the same object in other natural sciences, two psychologists cannot observe the same mental processes (e.g., fear). Social psychology deals with the peculiar traits of the collective behaviour. The weight of the elephant’s brain is 1/500 of its body weight. Psychology investigates its date by introspection, inspection or observation and experiment. Etymologically psychology means the science of the soul, viz., ‘psyche’ mean ‘soul’ and ‘logos’ means ‘science.’ The earlier psychologists maintained that the function of psychology was to study the nature, origin and the destiny of the human soul. Then only we perceive light. The experimental method has its own limitations. The number of impressions is- the independent variable. Similarly, the psychologist assumes the reality of mind, the reality of the environment, and the capacity of the mind to interact with the environment. Fear is excited by the sight of a tiger at large. He knows exactly where and when to look. It must study the nervous system, sense-organs, and muscles which are intimately connected with mental processes. He is well ‘set’ or prepared for accurate observation. In 1905 William McDougall defined psychology as the ‘science of behaviour’. Furthermore, the difficulty can be overcome by the collaboration of experts. Some contemporary psychologists also believe in the existence of the mind. This definition is wrong for the following reasons. Air waves produce sensations of sounds. Explanation is the ultimate aim of a science. PublishYourArticles.net - Publish Your Articles Now, Copyright infringement takedown notification template, Essay on Observation Method of Psychology. Psychology was finally defined as the science of behaviour where the term behaviour carries a very wide meaning. Psychology is commonly defined as the science of behavior and mental processes. So the word science is ambiguous. The modern English term consciousness is derived primarily from the Latin word conscius, "knowing, aware." It believes that all mental processes are determined by their causes, and tries to explain them by the laws of mind and some hypotheses. Yoga helps us connect with our true nature and the nature of the universe itself in a way that may b… It studies the behaviour of the living organisms. Experience presupposes a subject, or mind, or self that experiences an object, and involves the reality of subject and object. It gives us information about the logical structure of past happenings, but it does not give us any information about the occurrence of events in future. Some mental processes occur only under normal conditions of mental life. Further, if we cultivate the habit of mental alertness, we can introspect even the fleeting mental processes. So it is a natural science. Lastly, introspection sometimes involves attention to a mental process (e.g., perception) which is produced by an external object. Mental processes are accompanied by physiological processes, and cannot be adequately explained without them. He frowns, howls, grinds his teeth, closes his first, and assumes a threatening attitude. This difficulty may be remedied by close observation of various aspects of his behaviour. As long as we are trapped in our usual self-centered thoughts and emotions, we cannot end the problems in the world. For example, we may trace the growth of the human personality through early childhood, later childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Because the argument builds a world that is defined entirely physically, the world necessarily would contain consciousness; therefore zombies cannot exist in it. This definition may be taken as partially satisfactory if we understand its implications rightly. It may render some valuable service for the prediction of future events on the basis of our knowledge of the logical structure of the occurrence of events in the past. The causes of the trouble—physical, psychological, and social must be found out. The experimenter arranged the physical conditions under which he investigates the subject’s experience. It aims at a systematic and self-consistent body of knowledge relating to mental processes. It dispenses with introspection altogether. Statistics provides numerical information about events which take place in a definite period of time and in a given area. Development in experimental method progresses from the stage of simple description of behaviour to the stage of systematic exploration. A science seeks to explain the phenomena within its scope. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Province 4. In cognitive psychology, consciousness is defined as our subjective awareness of our unique thoughts, feelings, perceptions, sensations, memories, and environment. These methods were developed out of clinical practice. So the Behaviourist psychology which dispenses with mental processes seems to be absurd. R. S. Woodworth defines psychology as the “science of activities of the individual.” In his view, the term ‘activity’ must be taken in a very broad sense to include organic as well as mental activities. But how can the same mind turn back upon itself and make itself the object of observation? Thus it explains mental processes by the laws of mind. Clinical methods help us understand the abnormal forms of mental life with a view to preventing or curing them. A pious man is apt to think every other person to be pious. Physics, chemistry, and astronomy, for example, have been around for thousands of years. But they can experience similar mental processes. Here you can publish your research papers, essays, letters, stories, poetries, biographies and allied information with a single vision to liberate knowledge. 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